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The thorn character is transcribed as th, the yogh character as g, gh, w, y, or z as appropriate. Capitalization, word division, punctuation, paragraphing, numerals, dates, and currencies are modernized as appropriate. Gurevitch et al.

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New York: Routledge, , 67—8. Aram Veeser New York: Routledge, Olson and M. Benedict —ca.

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William Caxton ca. In the s he went to Bruges, Cologne, and Ghent where he began his career as a printer and translator. Six English translations of the Benedictine rule survive from the eleventh century to None of the translations is dependent on each other, nor is any direct French or Latin source known. Primary documents and further reading Blake, N. Knowles, D. Cambridge: Cam- bridge University Press.

New York: St. Pantin, W. Camden Society, 3rd series, 45, London: Royal Historical Society. Caxton, W. Koch ed. EETS, o. Language: English Southeast Midland Book date: ca. The subgettes also owe to be ryght ware that they make no strife wythyn or wythout wyth theyr sovereyns; yf that they doo, anone lete hem have the streyt reguler punysshment wyth the fere of God and in kepynge the rule, remembrynge that the hede withoute ony dowte shall yeve a full streyte accompte oo day of all their jugementes and byhavour to God atte ferefull daye of rekenynge.

Benedictine Rule 3 refresshe the poore peple wyth dedes of mercy, goostly and bodely, and medle lytyll wyth worldly actes, no thyng preferryng above the love of God, wrath or deceyte never to kepe in herte or to promyse ony false peas, kepynge ever charytee, and use never to swere, leeste that by custome ye fall in perjurie, and sey ever the trouth in herte and mouth, never yeldyng evyll for evyll but rather good for evyll, doyng no wronge to ony but for to suffre paciently whan it is done to you.

Love your enmyes, and curse hem not, and be redy to take persecucion for a rightwys mater; never be prowde or dronklew nor moche etyng or slouthfull, not grutchynge or bakbytynge, ever puttynge your trust in our Lord God. Whan that ye see ony goodnes in your-selfe, anone put it to oure Lorde and not to your-selfe. All thinge that is evyll ascryve to your-selfe. Fere ever the daye of jugement and the dun- geon of hell, desyrynge wyth all your mynde and herte the everlastyng lyfe, and have evere deth suspecte afore your eyen, and gyde ever your dedes wysely in every hour, and be certeyn that God beholdith theim in everi place, and every evyl thought that commyth to your mynde, anone put it awaye by thynkyng of Cristes passyon, and shewe theym by confessyon to your goostly fader, and kepe ever your tongue from evyll and schrewde langage, and speke lytyll and well, and ever avoyde vayn wordes and disso- lute laughter and japes, and be glad to here gode lectures and lyves of sayntes with preyer, dayly waylyng your synnes and the synnes and ignoraunce of the peple wyth amendes makyng.

The preceptes of your sovereyn in all thynges obey, lefull as to God, and fulfyll them. Ever pray for your enmyes and, or the sone goo downe, be in perfyte peas wyth theym dayly to your power, and never dyspeyr of the grete mercy of God. Loo, thyes ben the instrumentes of the spirituell crafte and occupacion, the which exercisid and doon, oure Lorde hath promysed to you and us that eye never sawe, nor ere ever herde, nor cowde ever in-to mannys herte ascende, the whiche to al his lovyng servantes he hath ordened.

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Obedyence is a grete vertu done without grutchyng or taryenge. It is the fyrst steppe unto mekenes, and it is right specyous and nedefull to be had for all peple and namely for relygyous persones.

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True obediencers, assone as thei be called or commaundid of theyr sovereyn, anone after the worde seyde, they be redy wyth all gladnesse to doo the dede so commaundid, settyng asyde all other thynges undone and their owne wyll in every poynt, and that wyth all quyknesse of herte and body for drede of our Lorde. Wherfore, he callyth suche a lyfe a streyt waye to heven and not a comyn waye where synners take her owne wyll, and be not undir the yocke of obedyence to an other.

Our Lorde loveth a thyng done unto hym cherefully in soule, and such obedience done to the sovereyn is done to God and for God, as he seyth hymselfe. Yf one obey with grutchyng either in worde or in their herte, fulfyllyng the commaundement of theyr sovereyn, yet it is not acceptable to God, the whiche beholdyth the herte ever and the wyll of the doer therof, and he shal have noo grace but rather payne ordeined for grutchers, without he amende him.

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I have put a kepyng to my mowth and am dompe and therwith made meke and silent. As it accordith to a mayster to speke and teche, so it behoveth the disciple to here and be silent; wordes of unclennes voyde or, mevynge to disolucyon or to laughter, ben dampned by the rule in ony place to be had, and it is commaundid streytly by the same, none to be so bolde to open their mowth in suche maner of talkyng. Yf theyr be founde ony gylty in theis premyses, thei ought to be punysshid streytly and grevously.

Yf we wyll atteyne and come to the heyth of perfyte mekenes, the whiche wyll bringe us to the honour of heven in body and soule, lete us lyft up our herte and mynde unto heven by the skale and lader of Jacob, descendyng wyth the angels from ony exaltacyon, and clymme up to theym by mekenes and humyliacion. Benedictine Rule 5 The sixth degre of mekenes is whan one is well content wyth symple araye or habite, and is glad to be set lytill by and to be take as a drudge or outcast of the religion, and to be ever redy to doo al thynges that is boden hym to doo, jugyng him an idyll servaunt and unworthy to God and man.

The grete vice and syn of properte in relygyon is namely to be cutte awaye by the rote. Presume none in relygyon to yeve ony thyng or to take wythout the wyll and commaundement of the sovereyn, nor it is leefull ony to have a thyng to theyrself propre, not as moche as their owne body, or to have their own wyll in their power. And all thynges must be commyn emonge theym accordyng to the lyfe of the apostles. And he that hath suche pite shewyd upon hym shal not therof be proude by contenaunce or by worde, and thus shall all the congregacyon be in rest and charitee, and grutchynge layd a syde, the whiche is perilous to be had eyther by worde or sygne.

Yf ony therin be founde culpable, anone put theim to streyt disciplyne. Eche one be besy to serve other, and none is to be exscusid from the dressing bord of the kechyn wythout they be seke or other wyse occupyed for the commyn well. In suche meke and low service is goten grete mede, 6 Luke And moreover theyr owne fete they shall make clene in theyr departyng, and delyver al the naprye7 and clene clothes to the celerer.

Suche servytoures by the rule may take a lytyll refresshing of mete and drynke afore high dyner for by-cause of their attendaunce and servyse at the same. In the tyme of Lent echon by theyr-selfe have the Bible, the whiche they owe to rede complete and hole besyde theyr servyse, and the seyde Bible is to be delyverd unto theym atte begynnynge of Lent. And the serchers of the relygyon owe to see warely about that they be occupyed in lecture therof Sonday and other, and not aboute fables, japes, or sluggisshenes.

Yf ony suche be founde, see that they be spoken unto sharply ones or twyes, and yf they amende not theyr-wyth, lete theym be correct soo that all other maye beware by theym. If theyr be ony so slouthfull or neclygent that they maye not or wyll not be occupied in redyng or holy medytacyon, thenne lete theym be assigned to other occupacyons to doo so that they be never unoccupied in vertu. If they be seke or feble for age, thenne such an occupacyon is to be put unto theym that they maye awaye wyth and not to be ydyll, by the discrecion of the sovereyn.

How be it that a relygious persone owe every tyme to kepe Lent, yet for by-cause that fewe have thys vertu, therfore we advise and counseyll, seyth Saynt Benet,8 all of the relygyon spiritually theys forty dayes of Lent to kepe in all clennesse of lyfe, and to put utterly awaye all theyr neclygences and olde custome of synne, and thenne more spiritually to gyve theim to prayer, waylyng and wepinge, redinge, and abstinence in mete and drynke, wythdrawynge somwhat of theyr takynge in mete and drynke other wyse than they dide afore, and that wyth good wyll, offerynge it in his mynde to God and to the poore peple, and to wythdrawe some what of slepe and speche and wanton behavour.

And as for abstynence of mete and drynke, it owe to be doon wyth the consente ever of the sovereyn and the helpe of prayer. For yf it be otherwyse doon, it is to be taken of presumpcyon and vayne glory, and thenne it hath noo mede. Clothynge to the covent, and habyte, is to be yeven accordyng to the hete of the yere or to the coldenes of the countre that they dwell in, lasse or more as nede is. And the sovereyn must have consideracion therof and to 7 linen.

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Friars 7 bye suche cloth that is made in that countre or provynce of the vilest and lyghtest pryce. And as oft as they shal take new, thenne to rendre up the olde for the use of pore peple. Saynt Benet woll that the rule be red effectuelly oftymes in the yere afore the congregacion for by-cause none of hem shal pretende ignorance or ony exscuse. Whan ony of the bredern must doo a journey without the clausure of the place, after licence had, he shall commende hym to the prayer of his sovereyn, and ever at last oryson in the servyse of God shal a prayer be sayd for him and all that is absent.

And the daye that they come home ayen, they shal lye prostrate all the servyse tyme and desyre the covent to praye for theym for theyr excesses done in the journey, as in syght, heryng of ony vanytees or evyll thynges, or ony voyde wordes. And they shall not tell ony thyng that they sawe or herd in theyr journey, for it is a grete meane to the destruccion of suche a place of relygion.

And he that presumyth to doo the contrary or to goo oute of the clausure of the monestary to ony place, thought it be never so lytil, wythout commandement or licence of the sovereyn, owe to be streytly punysshyd. Two of the four principal orders — the Friars Preachers Dominicans or Black Friars and the Friars Minor Franciscans or Grey Friars — quickly became integral in the life of univer- sities and commercial centers in the country, the Franciscans producing the remarkable theologians Roger Bacon, John Duns Scotus, William of Ockham, 9 Acts 4.

Along with the remaining two orders — the Augustinians and the Carmelites White Friars — the four mendicant orders had their maximum number of followers in approximately houses in the early fourteenth century before the pestilence. Friars ideally gave up permanent residence in one locality and material possessions; maintained contact with communities through preaching, confessions, and burial of the dead; and were obedient to provincial superiors and ultimately the pope.

Reproof and satire gained additional impetus from William of St. Richard FitzRalph ca. Either coming upon or partially instigating an anti-mendicant controversy in London and elsewhere in —7, FitzRalph proceeded to preach a number of anti-fraternal sermons in the vernacular, which led the four orders to respond, in turn requiring the archbishop to defend his position in front of the papal court.

On November 8, , he preached before Innocent VI what became known as Defensio curatorum, which outlined his objections to the friars, a text that survives in over seventy manuscripts. John Trevisa ca. The date of his translation of the Defense of the Curates is unknown. The translation survives in six manuscripts.

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Friars 9 Primary documents and further reading Erickson, C. FitzRalph, R. Monarchia s. Graz: Akademische-Druck. Verlagsanstalt, — Hagen, K. Lambdin and R.

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Lambdin eds. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 80— Mann, J. Cambridge: Cambridge Uni- versity Press. Miller, R. New York: Oxford University Press.